Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics 2018 03 30() 1-96 doi 10.1080/21645515.2018.1458806
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex causes tuberculosis (TB), one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide. TB results in more fatalities than multi-drug resistant (MDR) HIV strain related coinfection. Vaccines play a key role in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. Unfortunately, the only licensed preventive vaccine against TB, bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG), is ineffective for prevention of pulmonary TB in adults. Therefore, it is very important to develop novel vaccines for TB prevention and control. This literature review provides an overview of the innate and adaptive immune response during M. tuberculosis infection, and presents current developments and challenges to novel TB vaccines. A comprehensive understanding of vaccines in preclinical and clinical studies provides extensive insight for the development of safer and more efficient vaccines, and may inspire new ideas for TB prevention and treatment.