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The differential effects of low and high doses of apelin through opioid receptors on the blood pressure of rats with renovascular hypertension.

The differential effects of low and high doses of apelin through opioid receptors on the blood pressure of rats with renovascular hypertension.
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Yeganeh-Hajahmadi M, Najafipour H, Rostamzadeh F,


Yeganeh-Hajahmadi M, Najafipour H, Rostamzadeh F, (click to view)

Yeganeh-Hajahmadi M, Najafipour H, Rostamzadeh F,

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Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension 2017 03 09() doi 10.1038/hr.2017.28
Abstract

The apelin/APJ system has an important role in the regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure. Opioid receptors (OPRs) are also important cardiovascular regulators and exert many of their effects by modulating the function of other G-protein-coupled receptors. The aim of this study was to analyze the interaction of apelin and the opioid system with respect to vascular responses to apelin in rats with renovascular hypertension (two-kidney, one clip (2K1C)). Homodynamic studies were carried out in 2K1C rats. Naloxone (a nonselective OPR inhibitor) or nor-binaltorphimine dihydrochloride (norBNI, a kappa OPR inhibitor) and signaling pathway inhibitors PTX (a Gi path inhibitor) and chelerythrine (a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor) were administered before apelin at 20 and 40 μg kg(-1). Apelin at 20 and 40 μg kg(-1) decreased the systolic blood pressure by 15% and 20%, respectively (P<0.05). The pressure drop caused by apelin 20 was inhibited by naloxone, norBNI and PTX, but it was not affected by chelerythrine. The pressure drop caused by apelin 40 was augmented by naloxone and chelerythrine, and it was not affected by norBNI or PTX. The lowering effect of apelin 20 on blood pressure is exerted through OPRs and stimulation of Gi and PKC pathways. However, apelin 40 functions independently of OPRs, Gi and PKC. This dose-dependent differential effect of apelin may have potential clinical applications as opioids are currently used, and apelin has been introduced as a potential therapeutic agent in cardiovascular complications.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 9 March 2017; doi:10.1038/hr.2017.28.

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