In this study, we aimed to identify the cultivatable oral anaerobic bacterial distribution in oral cavity by MALDI-TOF Biotyper. The bacterial distribution of three groups, including subjects with/without periodontal disease, two clusters of age (60 years as the cutoff), and before/after treatment, were investigated in this study. There were 38 participants recruited in this study, involving 18 subjects with moderate to severe periodontal-infected patients and 20 healthy controls. Total number of 126 bacterial species were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The relative abundance of Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus intermedius in periodontal patients is higher than healthy controls indicating potential biomarkers for periodontal disease. Participants with periodontal disease were subdivided in to two clusters of age (60 years as the cutoff), 11 and 7 participants were age 60 years, respectively. Meanwhile, the incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus oralis infection were higher in the subjects above 60 years old than below. Moreover, the bacterial distribution between pre-treatment and post-treatment was similar indicating that basic treatment without the ability to redistribute the microbiota. In summary, the cultivable oral anaerobic bacteria were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and the bacterial distribution shifting was shown to be associated with the progress of periodontal disease to aging and basic treatment. This study provided information for diagnosis and treatment guidelines for oral healthcare.Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.