Acute lung injury (ALI) is one the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. In this study, we examined for first time the role of dapagliflozin (DPGZ) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in rats and determined the underlying molecular mechanisms by evaluating the effects of DPGZ on adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK), nuclear transcription factor kappa B, nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor 3 inflammasome activation. Treatment of acute lung injured rats with either low dose (5 mg/kg) or high dose (10 mg/kg) DPGZ significantly decreased oxidative stress by decreasing malondialdehyde and nitric oxide tissue levels with a significant increase in spectrophotometric measurements of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione levels. DPGZ treatment resulted in a significant anti-inflammatory effect as indicated by suppression in myeloperoxidase activity, MCP-1, IL-1β, IL-18, and TNF-α levels. DPGZ treatment also increased p-AMPK/t-AMPK with a significant reduction in NF-kB P65 binding activity and NFĸB p65 (pSer536) levels. These effects of DPGZ were accompanied by a significant reduction in NLRP3 levels and NLRP3 gene expression and a significant decrease in caspase-1 activity, which were also confirmed by histopathological examinations. We conclude that DPGZ antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity may occur through regulation of AMPK/NFĸB pathway and inhibition of NLRP3 activation. These results suggest that DPGZ represents a promising intervention for the treatment of ALI, particularly in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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