Oxidative stress is associated with several chronic diseases. It is acknowledged that molecules damaged by reactive oxygen species activate the inflammatory process and that this response increases the production of free radicals. Modifications in a diet can improve or decrease redox state markers. The aim of this revision was to provide an update of clinical controlled trials, to assess changes in diet and markers of oxidative stress in subjects with metabolic diseases. They were investigated randomized controlled intervention studies (RCTs) published in MEDLINE (U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) that were conducted in subjects with obesity, hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia; with dietary intervention; where markers of oxidative stress have been evaluated and published in the last 5 years. Food antioxidants, hypocaloric diets with loss of adipose tissue, substitution of animal protein by vegetable, and changes in the microbiota improve antioxidant status in people with chronic disease. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus and adipose tissue in obesity are known to trigger oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, in turn, decreases insulin sensitivity and favors an inflammatory state producing adhesion molecules. Oxidative stress and adhesion molecules, can increase blood pressure and oxidation of lipoproteins, that ultimately could lead to a cerebrovascular event. Consumption of high-antioxidant and polyphenol foods increases plasma antioxidant capacity and decreases oxidative stress markers in people with diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia. In addition, weight loss caused by caloric restriction with or without exercise increases the endogenous antioxidant capacity. Therefore, it is likely that the combination of a hypocaloric diet with a high content of antioxidants and polyphenols will have a greater effect. Other dietary changes with antioxidant effect, such as the substitution of animal for vegetable protein or the addition of fiber, might be mediated by changes in the microbiota. However, this aspect requires further study.
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