Most of the studies of obesity and postoperative outcome have looked predominantly at coronary artery bypass grafting with fewer focused on valvular disease. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of patients undergoing aortic valve replacement stratified by body mass index (BMI, kg/m^2).
The Alberta Provincial Project for Outcome Assessment in Coronary Heart Disease registry captured 4780 aortic valve replacements in Alberta, Canada from January 2004 to December 2018. All recipients were stratified by BMI into five groups (BMI: = 35). Log-rank test and Cox regression were used to examine the crude and adjusted survival differences.
Intra-operative clamp time and pump time were similar among the five groups. Significant statistical differences between groups existed for the incidence of isolated AVR, AVR and CABG, hemorrhage, septic infection, and deep sternal infection (p < 0.05). While there was no significant statistical difference in the mortality rate across the BMI groups, the underweight AVR patients (BMI < 20) were associated with increased hazard ratio (1.519; 95% confidence interval: 1.028-2.245) with regards to all-cause mortality at the longest follow-up compared with normal weight patients.
Overweight and obese patients should be considered as readily for AVR as normal BMI patients.