This review provides a critical literature overview of the risks and benefits of transplantectomy in patients with a failed allograft. Additionally, it offers a summary of related problems, primarily alloantibody sensitization in the event of nephrectomy and immunosuppression weaning.
Transplant nephrectomy has high morbidity and mortality rates. The morbidity of transplant nephrectomy (4.3 to 82%) is mostly due to hemorrhage or infection. Mortality rates range from 1.2 to 39%, and most are due to sepsis. Transvascular graft embolization has been described as a less invasive alternative technique for the management of symptomatic graft rejection, with minimal complications compared with transplantectomy. The number of patients with a failed allograft returning to dialysis is increasing. The role of allograft nephrectomy in the management of asymptomatic transplant failure is still controversial and up today continues to depend on the usual clinical practice of each institution. The less invasive transvascular embolization could have applicability in asymptomatic patients with the obvious lower morbidity and mortality rate.