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The flavonoid compound apigenin prevents colonic inflammation and motor dysfunctions associated with high fat diet-induced obesity.

The flavonoid compound apigenin prevents colonic inflammation and motor dysfunctions associated with high fat diet-induced obesity.
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Gentile D, Fornai M, Colucci R, Pellegrini C, Tirotta E, Benvenuti L, Segnani C, Ippolito C, Duranti E, Virdis A, Carpi S, Nieri P, Németh ZH, Pistelli L, Bernardini N, Blandizzi C, Antonioli L,


Gentile D, Fornai M, Colucci R, Pellegrini C, Tirotta E, Benvenuti L, Segnani C, Ippolito C, Duranti E, Virdis A, Carpi S, Nieri P, Németh ZH, Pistelli L, Bernardini N, Blandizzi C, Antonioli L, (click to view)

Gentile D, Fornai M, Colucci R, Pellegrini C, Tirotta E, Benvenuti L, Segnani C, Ippolito C, Duranti E, Virdis A, Carpi S, Nieri P, Németh ZH, Pistelli L, Bernardini N, Blandizzi C, Antonioli L,

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PloS one 2018 04 1113(4) e0195502 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0195502
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
Apigenin can exert beneficial actions in the prevention of obesity. However, its putative action on obesity-associated bowel motor dysfunctions is unknown. This study examined the effects of apigenin on colonic inflammatory and motor abnormalities in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity.

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH
Male C57BL/6J mice were fed with standard diet (SD) or high-fat diet (HFD). SD or HFD mice were treated with apigenin (10 mg/Kg/day). After 8 weeks, body and epididymal fat weight, as well as cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were evaluated. Malondialdehyde (MDA), IL-1β and IL-6 levels, and let-7f expression were also examined. Colonic infiltration by eosinophils, as well as substance P (SP) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions were evaluated. Motor responses elicited under blockade of NOS and tachykininergic contractions were recorded in vitro from colonic longitudinal muscle preparations.

KEY RESULTS
When compared to SD mice, HFD animals displayed increased body weight, epididymal fat weight and metabolic indexes. HFD mice showed increments in colonic MDA, IL-1β and IL-6 levels, as well as a decrease in let-7f expression in both colonic and epididymal tissues. HFD mice displayed an increase in colonic eosinophil infiltration. Immunohistochemistry revealed an increase in SP and iNOS expression in myenteric ganglia of HFD mice. In preparations from HFD mice, electrically evoked contractions upon NOS blockade or mediated by tachykininergic stimulation were enhanced. In HFD mice, Apigenin counteracted the increase in body and epididymal fat weight, as well as the alterations of metabolic indexes. Apigenin reduced also MDA, IL-1β and IL-6 colonic levels as well as eosinophil infiltration, SP and iNOS expression, along with a normalization of electrically evoked tachykininergic and nitrergic contractions. In addition, apigenin normalized let-7f expression in epididymal fat tissues, but not in colonic specimens.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
Apigenin prevents systemic metabolic alterations, counteracts enteric inflammation and normalizes colonic dysmotility associated with obesity.

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