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The HIV-1 integrase-LEDGF allosteric inhibitor MUT-A: resistance profile, impairment of virus maturation and infectivity but without influence on RNA packaging or virus immunoreactivity.

The HIV-1 integrase-LEDGF allosteric inhibitor MUT-A: resistance profile, impairment of virus maturation and infectivity but without influence on RNA packaging or virus immunoreactivity.
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Amadori C, van der Velden YU, Bonnard D, Orlov I, van Bel N, Le Rouzic E, Miralles L, Brias J, Chevreuil F, Spehner D, Chasset S, Ledoussal B, Mayr L, Moreau F, García F, Gatell J, Zamborlini A, Emiliani S, Ruff M, Klaholz BP, Moog C, Berkhout B, Plana M, Benarous R,


Amadori C, van der Velden YU, Bonnard D, Orlov I, van Bel N, Le Rouzic E, Miralles L, Brias J, Chevreuil F, Spehner D, Chasset S, Ledoussal B, Mayr L, Moreau F, García F, Gatell J, Zamborlini A, Emiliani S, Ruff M, Klaholz BP, Moog C, Berkhout B, Plana M, Benarous R, (click to view)

Amadori C, van der Velden YU, Bonnard D, Orlov I, van Bel N, Le Rouzic E, Miralles L, Brias J, Chevreuil F, Spehner D, Chasset S, Ledoussal B, Mayr L, Moreau F, García F, Gatell J, Zamborlini A, Emiliani S, Ruff M, Klaholz BP, Moog C, Berkhout B, Plana M, Benarous R,

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Retrovirology 2017 11 0914(1) 50 doi 10.1186/s12977-017-0373-2

Abstract
BACKGROUND
HIV-1 Integrase (IN) interacts with the cellular co-factor LEDGF/p75 and tethers the HIV preintegration complex to the host genome enabling integration. Recently a new class of IN inhibitors was described, the IN-LEDGF allosteric inhibitors (INLAIs). Designed to interfere with the IN-LEDGF interaction during integration, the major impact of these inhibitors was surprisingly found on virus maturation, causing a reverse transcription defect in target cells.

RESULTS
Here we describe the MUT-A compound as a genuine INLAI with an original chemical structure based on a new type of scaffold, a thiophene ring. MUT-A has all characteristics of INLAI compounds such as inhibition of IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction, IN multimerization, dual antiretroviral (ARV) activities, normal packaging of genomic viral RNA and complete Gag protein maturation. MUT-A has more potent ARV activity compared to other INLAIs previously reported, but similar profile of resistance mutations and absence of ARV activity on SIV. HIV-1 virions produced in the presence of MUT-A were non-infectious with the formation of eccentric condensates outside of the core. In studying the immunoreactivity of these non-infectious virions, we found that inactivated HIV-1 particles were captured by anti-HIV-specific neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies (b12, 2G12, PGT121, 4D4, 10-1074, 10E8, VRC01) with efficiencies comparable to non-treated virus. Autologous CD4(+) T lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine induction by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) pulsed either with MUT-A-inactivated HIV or non-treated HIV were also comparable.

CONCLUSIONS
Although strongly defective in infectivity, HIV-1 virions produced in the presence of the MUT-A INLAI have a normal protein and genomic RNA content as well as B and T cell immunoreactivities comparable to non-treated HIV-1. These inactivated viruses might form an attractive new approach in vaccine research in an attempt to study if this new type of immunogen could elicit an immune response against HIV-1 in animal models.

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