Numerous studies indicate a high incidence of various disorders of carbohydrate metabolism against the new coronavirus infection. These disorders aggravate the course of infection and increase mortality. Thereby, analysis of risk factors for unfavorable outcomes and assessment of the long-term consequences of COVID-19 in patients with impaired carbohydrate metabolism is of great importance.
To investigate the association between carbohydrate metabolism disorders in COVID-19 patients and mortality, course of infection, long-term consequences, as well as to identify risk factors for an unfavorable disease course.
A retrospective analysis of data from the combined multicenter non-interventional real-world AKTIV and AKTIV 2 registries was performed. The sample included 9290 patients who had COVID-19 with varying severity from June 29, 2020, to November 29, 2020 (AKTIV) and from October 01, 2020, to March 30, 2021 (AKTIV 2). The patients were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 – patients with intact carbohydrate metabolism, n=6606; Group 2 – patients with newly diagnosed hyperglycemia (NDH), n=1073; Group 3 – patients with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), n=1611. The groups were assessed for clinical and laboratory parameters, comorbidities, mortality, carbohydrate metabolic status, and well-being during the infection and at 12 months.
The prevalence of carbohydrate metabolism disorders (CMD) was 28,9%, with DM2 patients accounting for 17,3% and patients with newly diagnosed hyperglycemia (NDH) for 11,6%. The mortality rate of patients with hyperglycemia of any origin was 10.6%, which was significantly higher compared to patients without hyperglycemia (3,9%). The probability of lethal outcome increased 2,48-fold in the group of patients with DM2 and 2,04-fold in the group of patients with NDH. At the same time, the probability of a lethal outcome decreased 2,94-fold in patients without CMD. At 12 months, patients with CMD showed a significantly higher frequency and longer persistence of complaints. This trend was more pronounced in patients with DM2 than in those with NDH. Only 1,7% of patients from the NDH group had type 2 diabetes and were receiving oral hypoglycemic medications one year after the infection. A prognostic model was developed to determine the risk of lethal outcome. The model included such known predictors as concomitant ischemic heart disease, history of myocardial infarction or stroke, blood glucose level, and age.
Carbohydrate metabolism disorders aggravate the course of COVID-19 and increase mortality. One year after infection, patients with DM2 and NDH were more likely to have symptoms typical for post-COVID syndrome, and NDH resolved in most cases after the infection.