Influenza complications, such as cardiac impairment, are more likely in young children and people with chronic medical disorders. A study determined the mortality and clinical risks in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) admitted to the hospital for influenza. Using the nationally representative Kids Inpatient Database, Researchers examined data from in-hospital pediatric patients in 2003, 2006, 2009, 2012, and 2016. (KID). They used weighted data to assess the incidence of in-hospital mortality and rates of complications such as respiratory failure, acute renal injury, the requirement for mechanical ventilation, arrhythmias, and myocarditis in children aged 1 year and older. 

According to KID data, 125,470 children were hospitalized with an influenza illness diagnosis. A total of 2,174 patients (1.73%) obtained a discharge diagnosis of CHD. In-hospital mortality was greater in children with CHD who needed hospitalization for influenza (2.0% vs. 0.5%), with an adjusted OR (aOR) of 2.8 (95% CI: 1.7–4.5). AORs of 1.8 (95% CI: 1.5–2.2) and 2.2 (95% CI: 1.5–3.1) for acute respiratory failure and acute kidney failure, respectively, were higher among patients with CHD. Similarly, patients with CHD had a greater rate of mechanical ventilatory assistance than those without, 14.1 % vs. 5.6 %, with an odds ratio of 1.9 (95% CI: 1.6–2.3). The median length of hospital stay in children with CHD was 4 (IQR: 2–8) days compared to 2 (IQR: 2–4) days in children without CHD. Patients with severe and non-severe CHD had similar outcomes. Children with CHD who require hospitalization for influenza have a much higher risk of in-hospital mortality and morbidity, highlighting the importance of reinforcing preventative measures (e.g., immunization, personal hygiene) in this especially susceptible population.