Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) is one of the most frightening multidrug-resistant bacteria that usually causes sepsis. Herein we explored the benefits of nephrostomy drainage prior to percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) on infection outcomes in patients with ESBL-EC.
Between June 2016 and April 2019, 43 consecutive patients with ESBL-EC who received nephrostomy drainage for > 24 h prior to PCNL were retrospectively evaluated as group 1. 86 patients were randomly selected from patients with ESBL-EC who received concurrent percutaneous access during PCNL as group 2. The postoperative infection complications were compared.
Although the total infection complications were not statistically different (11.6% vs. 25.6%, p = 0.066), the severity seemed to be worse among group 2 subjects. Severe infections, including urosepsis (4.7% vs.13.9%) and septic shock (2.3% vs 4.6%), were observed at twice or greater rates in group 2. Blood transfusions were also more frequent (2.3% vs. 13.9%, p = 0.039). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that preoperative drainage was an independent risk factor for postoperative infection events (OR 2.31 CI 1.14-3.48, p = 0.017). Subgroup analyses indicated that preoperative drainage may largely reduce the incidence of urosepsis in patients with hydronephrosis or without receiving preoperative carbapenem therapy.
Because of the high rate of severe infection after PCNL in patients with ESBL‑positive E. coli, preoperative nephrostomy drainage for > 24 h is an effective measure to reduce the risk of severe infection complications, especially in patients with hydronephrosis or those without preoperative carbapenem therapy.