World journal of emergency surgery : WJES 2017 05 0212() 21 doi 10.1186/s13017-017-0133-6
Emergent pancreaticoduodenectomy is a life-saving procedure in certain clinical scenarios when all the conservative treatment fails. The indications can be limited into perforation and bleeding. To clarify the impact of etiology on surgical outcomes of emergent pancreaticoduodenectomy for non-trauma, we analyzed our patients and performed a literature review.
We reviewed 931 consecutive pancreaticoduodenectomies performed at our institute between January 2001 and July 2015. Patients with emergent pancreaticoduodenectomy for non-trauma etiologies were enrolled, whereas those who suffered from caustic injuries were excluded. The keywords "emergent/emergency" and "pancreaticoduodenectomy/pancreatoduodenectomy" were applied in a literature search. The universally available data for all the enrolled patients including etiology, surgical complications, outcomes, and hospital stays were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate logistic analysis for the contributing factors to surgical mortality were performed.
Six out of 931 (0.6%) registered pancreaticoduodenectomies matched our criteria of inclusion. The literature review obtained 4 series and 7 case reports, which when combined with our patients yielded a cohort of 31 emergent pancreaticoduodenectomies with 13 cases of perforation and 18 of bleeding. The rate of emergent pancreaticoduodenectomy for non-traumatic etiologies is similar between the present study and the other 3 series, ranging from 0.3 to 3%. The overall surgical complication rate was 83.9%. The rate of surgical mortality is significantly higher than in elective pancreaticoduodenectomy by propensity score matching with age and gender (19.4 versus 3.2%, P = 0.015). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression disclosed that etiology is the only preoperative risk factor for surgical mortality (perforation versus bleeding; odds ratio = 39.494, P = 0.031).
Emergent pancreaticoduodenectomy remains a rare operation. Surgical morbidity and mortality are higher than with elective pancreaticoduodenectomy among different reported series. By sorting the preoperative etiologies into two groups, perforation carries a higher risk of surgical mortality than bleeding.