To evaluate the efficacy of the different diagnostic tests for vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL).
A cohort of 150 patients with a presumed diagnosis of VRL. Vitrectomy samples were analysed for cytology, monoclonality [polymerase chain reaction (PCR)] and cytokine levels, and anterior chamber taps were analysed for cytokine levels. Vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL) was diagnosed after confirming the clinical suspicion with vitreal or brain cytology.
Vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL) was diagnosed in 78 patients. Vitreal cytology was positive for 53/132 patients (40.2%), 36/53 had positive cytology from both the eye and the brain. Additional 25 patients had positive brain cytology. Vitreal PCR for monoclonality was positive for 32/91 patients (35.2%). Vitreal cytokine levels of interleukin (IL)-10/IL-6 were >1 for 47/110 patients (43.1%). For cytology, PCR and cytokine analysis, the respective sensitivity was 73.6%, 46.0% and 81.4%, and the accuracy of the tests was 85.6%, 60.4% and 80.9%, respectively. All three tests were available for 79 patients. In this subset, for cytology, PCR and cytokine analysis the respective sensitivity was 79.5%, 41.0% and 82.1%, respectively, and the accuracy of the tests was 89.9%, 60.8% and 81.0%, respectively.
Cytokines analysis has an important role in the diagnosis of VRL. We suggest analysing cytokines levels in all cases suspected of VRL along with cytology and PCR analysis.

© 2020 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.