Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a globally common and important disease and there are evidence for a bidirectional relationship between microbiota and CKD. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of prebiotic – gum acacia (GA) on the intestinal microbiota in rats with adenine-induced CKD. Animals were randomly distributed into four equal groups (n = 6): control, adenine, GA and adenine + GA groups. CKD was induced by adenine (0.75% w/w) given in the diet daily for four weeks, and GA was administered in drinking water at a concentration of 15% w/v. The 16s rRNA analysis was performed on Illumina Miseq targeting V3-V4 region to characterize microbial composition. The abundance of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes and Verrucomicrobia bacteria was increased in adenine-induced CKD, and GA treatment successfully reversed those levels. Interestingly, alpha and beta diversity index were both reduced with GA treatment in rats with CKD. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) measurement and PICRUSt analysis have shown that GA treatment completely restored the depleted butyrate level and various perturbated functional pathways, respectively, in CKD rats. Taking together, our results suggest that GA supplementation has a beneficial role in treating CKD, through an increased production of butyrate, as well as its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant capacity and anti-nitrosative properties.Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.