Thyroid hormones are important factors that regulate metabolism and cell differentiation throughout the human body. A complication of thyroid pathology is represented by an alteration of the bone metabolism which can lead to osteoporosis and fragility fractures, known to have a high mortality rate. Although there is a consensus on the negative impact of hyperthyroidism on bone metabolism, when referring to hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, or subclinical hyperthyroidism, there is no general agreement. The aim of our review was to update clinicians and researchers about the current data regarding the bone health in hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, and subclinical hyperthyroidism patients. Thyroid disorders have an important impact on bone metabolism and fracture risk, such that hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and subclinical hyperthyroidism are associated with a decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of fracture. Subclinical hypothyroidism, on the other hand, is not associated with osteoporosis or fragility fractures, and subclinical hyperthyroidism treatment with radioiodine could improve bone health.
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