Current HIV/AIDS reports 2017 07 07() doi 10.1007/s11904-017-0359-7
Lymph nodes play a central role in the development of adaptive immunity against pathogens and particularly the generation of antigen-specific B cell responses in specialized areas called germinal centers (GCs). Lymph node (LN) pathology was recognized as an important consequence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection since the beginning of the HIV epidemic. Investigation into the structural and functional alterations induced by HIV and Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) has further cemented the central role that lymphoid tissue plays in HIV/SIV pathogenesis. The coexistence of constant local inflammation, altered tissue architecture, and relative exclusion of virus-specific CD8 T cells from the GCs creates a unique environment for the virus evolution and establishment of viral reservoir in specific GC cells, namely T follicular helper CD4 T cells (Tfh). A better understanding of the biology of immune cells in HIV-infected lymph nodes is a prerequisite to attaining the ultimate goal of complete viral eradication.