Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions of people, and its prevalence is expected to continue to grow in the older age population. It is characterized by cognitive impairment and dementia on the long term leading to a wide spectrum of social and financial burdens. Due to these burdens, there is a need to have a better understanding of the disease pathophysiology as well as to come up with more readily available and cost-effective screening tools to provide an acceptable estimate of the disease risk/diagnosis in the early years of the disease before dementia develops as it is in these early years that lifestyle modifications can be more effective in protecting against and delaying the frank cognitive impairment associated with AD. Recently, there has been a more detailed, yet incomplete, comprehension of the inflammatory component of the AD pathophysiology. The inflammatory response in AD entails hyperactivation of neutrophils with noticeable changes in their subsets and increased migration of lymphocytes into the central nervous system (CNS) across the compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB). These changes in the counts of the different immune cells in AD allowed for pursuing a new cost-effective, and more widely accessible diagnostic tool, which is the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). In this review, we aimed to discuss the inflammatory response in AD, and how this response is reflected in the counts of different immune cells, mainly neutrophils and lymphocytes which can be implemented in the utility of NLR as a diagnostic tool in AD patients.
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