Human foamy virus (HFV) is a complex and unique retrovirus with the longest genomes among retroviruses used as vectors for gene therapy. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are regarded as key regulators that involved in diverse biological processes during viral infection. However, the role of lncRNAs in HFV infection remains unknown. In this study, we utilized next-generation sequencing to first characterize lncRNAs in 293T cells after HFV infection, evaluating length distribution, exon number distribution, volcano picture and lncRNA class distribution. We identified 11,336 lncRNAs (4,729 upregulated lncRNAs and 6,588 downregulated lncRNAs) and 61,367 mRNAs (30,133 upregulated mRNAs and 31,220 downregulated mRNAs), which were differentially expressed in the HFV-infected 293T cells. Subsequently, six differentially expressed lncRNAs characterized using RNA-seq were confirmed by qRT-PCR assays. Interestingly, Gene Ontology (GO)/Gene Ontology Tree Machine (GOTM) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses indicated that positive regulation of IL-8 production and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction might be involved in the functional enrichment of lncRNAs. Moreover, cis-acting and trans-acting regulatory networks show that NR_028036 may target the fas gene in a cis-acting manner and that ENST00000354838 may target the IL18 gene in a trans-acting manner. Overall, these results not only provide novel insight into the relationship between HFV and lncRNAs in the host response to infection but also have implications for the future wider application of HFV as a vector.
The Novel Landscape of Long Non-coding RNAs in Response to Human Foamy Virus Infection Characterized by RNA-seq.