Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are an important source of foam cells in atherosclerosis. The mechanism for VSMC-derived foam cell formation is, however, poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the P2RY12/P2Y12 receptor is important in regulating macroautophagy/autophagy and VSMC-derived foam cell formation in advanced atherosclerosis. Inhibition of the P2RY12 receptor ameliorated lipid accumulation and VSMC-derived foam cell formation in high-fat diet-fed mice (atherosclerosis model) independent of LDL-c levels. Activation of the P2RY12 receptor blocked cholesterol efflux via PI3K-AKT, while genetic knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of the P2RY12 receptor inhibited this effect in VSMCs. Phosphoproteomic analysis showed that the P2RY12 receptor regulated the autophagy pathway in VSMCs. Additionally, activation of the P2RY12 receptor inhibited MAP1LC3/LC3 maturation, SQSTM1 degradation, and autophagosome formation in VSMCs. Genetic knockdown of the essential autophagy gene significantly attenuated P2RY12 receptor inhibitor-induced cholesterol efflux in VSMCs. Furthermore, activation of the P2RY12 receptor led to the activation of MTOR through PI3K-AKT in VSMCs, whereas blocking MTOR activity (rapamycin) or reducing MTOR expression reversed the inhibition of cholesterol efflux mediated by the P2RY12 receptor in VSMCs. , inhibition of the P2RY12 receptor promoted autophagy of VSMCs through PI3K-AKT-MTOR in advanced atherosclerosis in mice, which could be impeded by an autophagy inhibitor (chloroquine). Therefore, we conclude that activation of the P2RY12 receptor decreases cholesterol efflux and promotes VSMC-derived foam cell formation by blocking autophagy in advanced atherosclerosis. Our study thus suggests that the P2RY12 receptor is a therapeutic target for treating atherosclerosis.
December 28, 2016
September 10, 2012
Elevated body-mass index is associated with an increased risk of infectious disease admissions and mortality: a mendelian randomization study.
June 29, 2020
- ACC 2020The American College of Cardiology decided to cancel ACC.20/WCC due to COVID-19, which was scheduled to take place March 28-30 in Chicago. However, ACC.20/WCC Virtual Meeting continues to release cutting edge science and practice changing updates for cardiovascular professionals on demand and free through June 2020.
- ENDO: 2020ENDO 2020 Annual Conference has been canceled due to COVID-19. Here are highlights of emerging data that has still been released. Keep an eye out for ENDO Online 2020, which will take place from June 8 to 22.