The renal elimination of uremic toxins (UTs) can be potentially altered by drugs that inhibit organic anion transporters 1/3 (OAT1/OAT3). The objective of the present study was to determine whether the prescription of at least one OAT1/OAT3 inhibitor was associated with the plasma accumulation of certain UTs in kidney transplant recipients. We included 403 kidney transplant recipients. For each patient, we recorded all prescription drugs known to inhibit OAT1/OAT3. Plasma levels of four UTs (trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), indole acetic acid (IAA), para-cresylsulfate (pCS), and indoxylsulfate (IxS) were assayed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma UT levels were significantly higher among patients prescribed at least one OAT inhibitor ( = 311) than among patients not prescribed any OAT inhibitors ( = 92). Multivariate analysis revealed that after adjustment for age, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), plasma level of albumin and time since transplantation, prescription of an OAT1/OAT3 inhibitor was independently associated with the plasma accumulation of pCS (adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 2.11 (1.26; 3.61]). Our results emphasize the importance of understanding the interactions between drugs and UTs and those involving UT transporters in particular.
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