Patients with autoimmune diseases (ADs) are more likely to develop celiac disease (CD), however, research on the risk of ADs in CD-treated patients is inconsistent. For this study researchers wanted to determine the prevalence of ADs in CD patients who were being treated. Medical data from January 1997 to December 2015 for individuals with CD who fulfilled established diagnostic criteria were used. During the same trial period, they selected two age and gender-matched controls for each CD patient. The incidence rate of AD diagnosis 5 years from the index date was estimated for CD patients.

During the research period, they identified 249 CD patients and 498 matched controls, with mean (standard deviation) ages of 32 (22) years and 33 (22) years, respectively. Boys made up one-third of the patients (n=85) and controls (n=170). Five years after the index date, 5.0% of CD patients and 1.3% of controls were diagnosed with AD for the first time (P=0.006). The cumulative probability of a de novo or extra AD in the context of a prior AD was considerably greater in the CD group compared to controls (P<0.001). When compared to adults, children had a considerably greater chance of developing AD (P=0.010). 

Patients who have been treated for CD are at an increased risk of developing ADs. In youngsters, the chance of developing a new Alzheimer’s disease is increased, especially if they have more than one Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis.