The purpose of this paper is to summarize the current evidence on probiotics’ uses as an adjuvant for ulcerative colitis (UC) and provide an understanding of the effect of probiotics supplement on the immune system and inflammatory responses among UC patients and subsequent therapeutic benefits.
A narrative review of all the relevant published papers known to the author was conducted.
UC is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that results in inflammation and ulceration of the colon and rectum. The primary symptoms of active disease are diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding. About 70% of the human immune system (mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue) originates in the intestine. Probiotics are live microorganisms that help in stabilizing the gut microbiota (nonimmunologic gut defense), restores normal flora, and enhance the humoral immune system. Probiotics especially , and lactic acid-producing bacteria have been used as an adjunct therapy for treating UC to ameliorate disease-related symptoms and reduce relapse rate. Probiotics, in general, modulate the immune system through their ability to enhance the mucosal barrier function, or through their interaction with the local immune system to enhance regulatory T cell responses, decrease the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta and increase anti-inflammatory factor interleukin 10.
More studies are needed to explore the properties of the various probiotic bacterial strains, their different uses, as well as the dosage of probiotics and duration for treating different disorders. Further clinical investigations on mechanisms of action and how probiotics modulate the immune system may lead to further advances in managing IBD.

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