As an ancient Gram-negative bacterium, Helicobacter pylori has settled in human stomach. Eradicating H. pylori increases the morbidities of asthma and other allergic diseases. Therefore, H. pylori might play a protective role against asthma. The “disappearing microbiota” hypothesis suggests that the absence of certain types of the ancestral microbiota could change the development of immunology, metabolism, and cognitive ability in our early life, contributing to the development of some diseases. And the Hygiene Hypothesis links early environmental and microbial exposure to the prevalence of atopic allergies and asthma. Exposure to the environment and microbes can influence the growing immune system and protect subsequent immune-mediated diseases. H. pylori can inhibit allergic asthma by regulating the ratio of helper T cells 1/2 (Th1/Th2), Th17/regulatory T cells (Tregs), etc. H. pylori can also target dendritic cells to promote immune tolerance and enhance the protective effect on allergic asthma, and this effect relies on highly suppressed Tregs. The remote regulation of lung immune function by H. pylori is consistent with the gut-lung axis theory. Perhaps, H. pylori also protects against asthma by altering levels of stomach hormones, affecting the autonomic nervous system and lowering the expression of heat shock protein 70. Therapeutic products from H. pylori may be used to prevent and treat asthma. This paper reviews the possible protective influence of H. pylori on allergic asthma and the possible application of H. pylori in treating asthma.
© 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel.