Increased calorie intake has always been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The objective of this research is to evaluate the short-term and long-term effects of calorie restriction on cardiometabolic risk.

It was a phase-2, multicenter, randomized, and controlled trial conducted on young and middle-aged (21-50 years), non-obese, and healthy adults. Participants were randomly assigned a 25% calorie-restricted diet or an ad libitum control diet. The researchers evaluated the exploratory cardiometabolic risk factor responses in participants with a 25% calorie restriction diet for two years. A total of 238 participants were assessed on heart functions, including blood pressure, metabolic syndrome score, glucose homeostasis, etc.

Out of 238 participants, 218 were assigned one of the two diets (25% calorie restriction diet to 143, and ad libitum control diet to 75). Individuals in the calorie restriction group achieved an average calorie intake of 11.9% and a sustained mean weight reduction of 7.5 kg. Calorie restriction caused a significant decrease in all cardiometabolic risk factors, including LDL cholesterol and blood pressure. 

The other group achieved a 0.8% calorie intake and 0.1 kg reduction in weight. The researchers did not find any significant decrease in cardiometabolic risk factors in the participants of the control diet group.

The research concluded that two years of moderate calorie restriction could significantly reduce multiple cardiometabolic risk factors in young, non-obese adults.