International journal of behavioral medicine 2017 07 07() doi 10.1007/s12529-017-9652-5
We examined the relation of alcohol consumption to glucose metabolism and insulin resistance (IR) as a function of depressive symptoms, adiposity, and sex.
Healthy adults (aged 18-65 years) provided fasting blood samples and information on lifestyle factors. Alcohol intake was categorized as never, infrequent (1-3 drinks/month), occasional (1-7 drinks/week), and regular (≥2 drinks/day) drinkers. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess symptom severity. Primary outcomes were fasting insulin, glucose, and IR assessed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA).
In univariate analysis, alcohol consumption was negatively associated with HOMA-IR (p = 0.03), insulin (p = 0.007), and body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.04), but not with glucose or BDI. Adjusting for potential confounders including BMI, alcohol consumption was associated with HOMA-IR (p = 0.01) and insulin (p = 0.009) as a function of BDI and sex. For women with minimal depressive symptoms, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption was associated with lower HOMA-IR and insulin. Alcohol consumption was not associated with metabolic markers in women with higher depressive symptoms and in men. In analysis using BMI as a continuous moderator, alcohol consumption was only associated with insulin (p = 0.004). Post-hoc comparisons between BMI groups (<25 vs ≥25 kg/m(2)) revealed that light-to-moderate alcohol consumption was associated with lower insulin but only in subjects with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2). CONCLUSIONS
The benefits of light-to-moderate alcohol consumption on fasting insulin and IR are sex dimorphic and appear to be independently moderated by adiposity and depressive symptom severity.