Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association 2017 10 1627(11) 1347-1359 doi 10.1089/thy.2016.0660
The global incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing, and metastatic spread to the lymph nodes is common in papillary thyroid carcinoma. The metastatic course of thyroid carcinoma is an intricate process involving invasion, angiogenesis, cell trafficking, extravasation, organ specific homing, and growth. A key aspect in this process involves a multitude of interactions between chemokines and their receptors. Chemokines are a group of small proteins, which act to elicit normal physiologic and immune responses principally through recruitment of specific cell populations to the site of infection or malignancy. Thyroid cancer cells, like other tumors, possess the ability to corrupt the chemokine system to their advantage by altering cell movement into the tumor microenvironment and affecting all aspects of thyroid cancer progression.