Classifications for onsite sanitation in terms of facility type (septic tanks, pit latrines) exist, but connecting these facilities to the wider sanitation value chain via improved containment, emptying, and collection has not been well explored. Using existing Joint Monitoring Programme facility classifications and secondary data on piped water access, a Service Typology was developed to classify and quantify the primary emptying service needs of household level onsite sanitation facilities. Facilities in six Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) regions were classified as Emptiable (faecal sludge can be removed either via Mechanized or Non-Mechanized means) or Unemptiable. Of the 722 million household level sanitation facilities assessed in these regions, 32% were found to be emptiable via Mechanized means, 50% via Non-Mechanized means and 18% were found to be Unemptiable pits. The volume (by number of facilities) and density (as a proportion of the full population) of each service type were estimated by SDG region and by country. Results from this study provide background data on the role of emptying sanitation facilities in achieving SDG6, and can be incorporated into investment priorities, policy framing, technology development, infrastructure development, and targeted behaviour change strategies.
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