Since 2005, endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has emerged as a standard pulmonological tool. The procedure is safe and well tolerated by patients, with minimal morbidity and almost no mortality. A previous review on the technique was published in 2012. However, over the last ten years, a number of new studies have been published on “benign” (sarcoidosis, tuberculosis…) as well as “malignant” diseases (lung cancer, metastases of extra-thoracic cancers, search for mutations and specific oncogenic markers…). These developments have led to expanded indications for EBUS-TBNA, with which it is indispensable to be familiar, in terms of “staging” as well as “diagnosis”. In view of optimizing lymph node sampling, several publications have described and discussed EBUS exploration by means of newly available tools (biopsy forceps, larger needles…), and proposed interpretation of the images thereby produced. Given the ongoing evolution of linear EBUS, it seemed indispensable that information on this marvelous tool be updated. This review is aimed at summarizing the novel elements we have found the most important.
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