Consumption of fish oil is associated with reduced morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases and also reduces the severity of many other inflammatory diseases and autoimmune disorders. The beneficial effects are attributed to the anti-inflammatory effects of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), found in fish oils. The mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effects was long thought to be by modulating the production of proinflammatory mediators, including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. Recent advances in research into the novel lipid mediators (resolvins, protectins, and maresins) derived from EPA and DHA and their role in the resolution of inflammation have shed new light on the pleiotropic nature of these fatty acids. In this review, we focus on the effects of EPA and DHA from fish oil in the treatment of two common inflammatory eye diseases – dry eye disease and age-related macular degeneration. Evidence from recent studies lends support to a role of fish oil in the treatment of these two eye diseases.
Copyright © 2017 by S. Karger AG, Basel.