Humanin, a mitochondria-derived peptide, has been found to exert variously protective function in many tissues, especially in the nervous tissues. However, relatively limited studies have focused on the role of humanin in the regulation of reproduction. Current observations indicate that humanin plays an important role in regulating the response of cell to oxidative stress and apoptosis in ovaries and testes via the modulation of several signaling pathways, especially when the body is in an abnormal state. Even so, the detailed mechanism of humanin function needs to be explored urgently. In this passage, we demonstrate how humanin exerts its protective role in female and male reproduction and raise several questions that need further investigations. Given humanin’s new frontier for the design of novel therapeutic approaches for male infertility, male contraception, female infertility, and glucose metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome, it is worthy of further study on its protective effect and clinical applications in reproductive function.
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