COVID-19 is a present-day complex pandemic infection with unpredictable levels of morbidity and mortality in various global populations. COVID-19 is associated with the different comorbidities with its change in biological function such as causing heart dysfunction via deregulating ACE-2 receptor, gastrointestinal risk via causing vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, chronic kidney disease via proteinuria and hematuria, diabetes mellitus, liver injury via increasing ALT, AST and bilirubin level, lung injury, CNS risk, ocular risk, and cancer risk. In this, we are focused on the COVID-19 connected with male infertility. Some of the studies show that the patients of COVID-19 are associated with impaired spermatogenesis. Impaired spermatogenesis via COVID-19 decreases the level of testosterone by disturbing cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-12 and further, attenuates the sperm count. COVID-19 is causing inflammation via TNF-α and interferons. IL-4 plays an eminent role in the activation of the JAK-STAT pathway and leads to the disturbing pro-inflammatory cytokine as well as further cause’s male infertility. Th2 activates the IL-4 through IgG and IgE and mediates apoptosis with the triggering of STAT signaling. The activated STAT signaling augments Batf/Irf4, and the Bach2/Batf pathway. On the other hand, SARS-CoV-2 is activating the level of Th2 cells. So, we hypothesized that the augmented Th2 cells would disturb the level of IL-4, JAK-STAT signaling, Batf/Irf4, and Bach2/Batf pathway. The disturbed IL-4 decreases the level of the ACE-2 with the inflammation. This further leads to male infertility in COVID-19 patients. So, in this hypothesis, we focused on the role of IL-4 in COVID-19 patients associated with male infertility via Th2 cells and JAK-STAT signaling.
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References

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