Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory disease with an unacceptably high mortality rate caused by an infection or trauma that involves both innate and adaptive immune systems. Inflammatory events activate different downstream pathways leading to tissue damage and ultimately multi-organ failure. Mitochondria are responsible for cellular energy, thermoregulation, metabolite biosynthesis, intracellular calcium regulation, and cell death. Damaged mitochondria induce the high Ca influx through mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). It also generates excessive Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and releases mtDNA into the cytoplasm, which causes induction of NLRP3 inflammasome and apoptosis. Mitophagy (Autophagy of damaged mitochondria) controls mitochondrial dynamics and function. It also maintains cellular homeostasis. This review is about how pulmonary sepsis affects the body. What is the aftermath of sepsis, and how mitophagy affects Acute Lung Injury and macrophage polarisation to overcome the damages.Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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Mansoor Ali Syed