Archives of virology 2017 10 04() doi 10.1007/s00705-017-3569-9
It is well-recognized that human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) mainly targets CD4(+) T cells and macrophages. Nonetheless, during the past three decades, a huge number of studies have reported that HIV-1 can directly or indirectly target other cellular components of the immune system including CD8(+) T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), among others. PMNs are the most abundant leukocytes in the human circulation, and are known to play principal roles in the elimination of invading pathogens, regulating different immune responses, healing of injured tissues, and maintaining mucosal homeostasis. Until recently, little was known about the impact of HIV-1 infection on PMNs as well as the impact of PMNs on HIV-1 disease progression. This is because early studies focused on neutropenia and recurrent microbial infections, particularly, during advanced disease. However, recent studies have extended the investigation area to cover new aspects of the interactions between HIV-1 and PMNs. This review aims to summarize these advances and address the impact of HIV-1 infection on PMNs as well as the impact of PMNs on HIV-1 disease progression to better understand the pathophysiology of HIV-1 infection.