A heterogeneous group of hematologic malignancies is known as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It emerges from the clonal proliferation of immature lymphoid cells in the bone marrow, peripheral blood, and other organs. A common drug, vinca alkaloid vincristine, is part of the chemotherapy regimen used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It has seen prevalent use because of its well-defined mechanism of action. Plus, it showed anticancer actions, and it was able to work with other agents easily. Yet, the drug’s dosage is regularly limited due to the concerns of neurotoxicity. As a result, patients with large body surface areas frequently receive insufficient doses. Liposomal formulations can “passively” accumulate at locations of augmented vasculature permeability and decrease the adverse effects of encapsulated relative to free drugs. A sphingomyelin/cholesterol-based liposome-encapsulated formulation is the vincristine sulfate liposome injection (VSLI). The drug is delivered into the patients’ bodies in a 1-hour infusion every week. Vincristine is gradually released from the liposome and carried into the tissues more efficiently than with the typical preparation because of the pharmacokinetics of the liposomal delivery system. As such, a higher dose can be administered, resulting in a rise in the therapeutic index from decreased toxicity. Therefore, there is a beneficial variance between the two formulations. Adults with second or greater relapse and clinically advanced Philadelphia chromosome-negative ALL are suggested to receive the VSLI treatment. Unprecedented studies can be conducted to determine VSLI is better than traditional vincristine.