Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) have been reported to exert important roles in the inflammatory response. There are many inflammatory diseases in dentistry which support the administration of ω-3 PUFAs as an adjunct therapy during the treatment of these diseases. The aim of this review was to evaluate the use of ω-3 PUFAs as an adjuvant therapy during the treatment of buccal diseases. The review showed that supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs was used for treatment of gingivitis, periodontal diseases, apical periodontitis, stomatitis and orthodontic tooth movement. The results indicate that ω-3 PUFAs decreased the number of pro-inflammatory mediators in the gingival tissues of individuals with gingivitis and periodontitis. In apical periodontitis, the supplementation suppressed bone resorption and promoted bone formation in the periapical area of rats. During orthodontic movement, the supplementation showed a decrease of bone resorption in rats. It also showed that painful symptoms of recurrent aphthous stomatitis were alleviated in supplemented patients. In conclusion, the ω-3 PUFAs may be used as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of inflammatory diseases that affect the oral cavity. However, more studies are required to elucidate the role of ω-3 PUFAs in decreasing oral cavity inflammatory processes.
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