Current atherosclerosis reports 2017 10 1719(12) 48 doi 10.1007/s11883-017-0685-7
PURPOSE OF REVIEW
Many guidelines exist for the use of statins in the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Few have focused on disease specific states that predispose to ASCVD. This review is intended to focus on the recommendations and evidence in inflammatory diseases that predispose to an increased risk of ASCVD beyond what conventional cardiac risk scores would predict.
Certain autoimmune inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), and psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis have all been shown to increase the risk of ASCVD. Other diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and mediastinal radiation have also been correlated with increased ASCVD. In RA and HIV, the evidence suggests a benefit to added statin therapy and society guidelines favor early initiation. The evidence for statin therapy in RA is limited to observational studies with small secondary analysis. In HIV, there is a large ongoing clinical trial to assess efficacy. In those with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, there is limited evidence for or against statin therapy independent of a calculated cardiac risk score. Finally, in SLE and in those with exposure to mediastinal radiation, cardiac events remain high, but evidence is limited on the beneficial effects of statin therapy. There are many individuals who have an increased risk for ASCVD above what is predicted from a cardiac risk score. It would be beneficial to create risk prediction models with statin therapy recommendations that are tailored to those predisposed to accelerated atherosclerosis.