Therapeutic contact lenses (TCLs) are often used in the management of a wide variety of corneal and ocular surface diseases (OSDs). Indications of TCL include pain relief, enhancing corneal healing, corneal sealing, corneal protection, and drug delivery. For painful corneal diseases such as bullous keratopathy, epidermolysis bullosa, and epithelial abrasions/erosions, bandage contact lenses (BCLs) provide symptomatic relief. Postoperatively in photorefractive keratectomy or laser epithelial keratomileusis, BCLs also alleviate pain. In severe OSDs such as severe dry eye, Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis, gas-permeable scleral contact lenses are often used to enhance corneal healing. BCLs are used post-keratoplasty, post-trabeculectomy, and post-amniotic membrane transplantation to enhance healing. BCLs, with or without glue adhesives, are used to seal small corneal perforations and sometimes also used as bridging treatment before penetrating keratoplasty in larger corneal perforations. In patients with eyelid conditions such as trichiasis, ptosis, and tarsal scarring, BCLs are also effective in forming a mechanical barrier to protect the cornea. A relatively new use for TCLs is in ocular drug delivery where TCLs are used to maintain therapeutic concentrations of medication on the ocular surface. Contraindications of the use of TCLs include infective keratitis, corneal anesthesia, and significant exposure keratopathy with inadequate eyelid position or movement. Complications of TCL include infective keratitis, corneal hypoxia and associated complications, corneal allergies and inflammation, and poor lens fit. Overall, TCLs are effective in the treatment of corneal and OSDs but contraindications and complications must be considered.