This study states that We evaluated the therapeutic outcomes of embolotherapy for bone arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) affecting the extremities using ethanol, coils, and n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA).

We reviewed the data from 36 patients (18 males, 18 females; mean age 25 years; age range, 1-64 years) with bone AVMs affecting their extremities who had undergone embolotherapy using ethanol, coils, and NBCA from December 1996 to July 2019. Of the 36 patients, 19 had had pure bone AVMs and 17 mixed bone and soft tissue (MBS) AVMs. Embolotherapy was performed using direct puncture or a transvenous or an intra-arterial approach (range, 1-18 procedures; mean, 5 procedures). During the 178 embolotherapy procedures, ethanol was used in all 36 patients, except for 1. Coils were used in 14 patients, and NBCA and a lipiodol mixture in 9 patients. The therapeutic outcomes were evaluated by the clinical symptom response and the degree of devascularization on follow-up angiography or computed tomography. The major and minor complications were also evaluated. Embolotherapy for bone AVMs affecting the extremities using ethanol, coils, and an NBCA mixture is effective and safe for the resolution or improvement of symptoms, especially in those with pure bone AVMs.

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