Respiratory diseases are the major cause of human illness and death around the world. Despite advances in detection and treatment, very few classes of safe and effective therapy have been introduced to date. At present, phytochemicals are getting more attention because of their diverse beneficial activities and minimal toxicity. Tannins are polyphenolic secondary metabolites with high molecular weights, which are naturally present in a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, cereals, and leguminous seeds. Many tannins are endowed with well-recognized protective properties, such as anti-cancer, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-hyperglycemic, and many others. This review summarizes a large body of experimental evidence implicating that tannins are helpful in tackling a wide range of non-malignant respiratory diseases including acute lung injury (ALI), pulmonary fibrosis, asthma, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mechanistic pathways by which various classes of tannins execute their beneficial effects are discussed. In addition, clinical trials and our perspective on future research with tannins are also reviewed.Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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