AIDS research and human retroviruses 2017 10 12() doi 10.1089/aid.2017.0175
The scientific and medical community is seeking to cure HIV. Several pathways have been or are being explored including therapeutic vaccination. Viroimmunological studies on primary infection as well as on elite controllers have demonstrated the importance of the cytotoxic CD8 response and have mainly oriented research on vaccine constructs toward this type of response. The results of these trials are clearly not commensurate with the hope placed in them. Might there be one or more uncontrolled variables? The genetics of patients need to be taken into consideration, especially their human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. There is a need to find a balance between the conservation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes and presentation by HLA alleles. The pathway is a narrow one between adaptation of the virus to HLA I restriction and the definition of conserved proviral CTL epitopes presentable by HLA I alleles. It is likely that the genetics of patients will need to be considered for HIV-1 vaccine studies and that multidisciplinary collaboration will be essential in this field of infectious diseases.