Sargassum carpophyllum (Sargassaceae) is a brown seaweed that contains phlorotannins, which are phloroglucinol polymers with reported anti-inflammatory activities. The phlorotannins 2-[2-(3,5-dihydroxyphenoxy)-3,5-dihydroxyphenoxy]-1,3,5-benzenetriol (1), 2,2′-[[2-(3,5-dihydroxyphenoxy)-5-hydroxy-1,3-phenylene]bis(oxy)]bis(1,3,5-benzenetriol) (2), and 2-[2-[4-[2-(3,5-dihydroxyphenoxy)-3,5-dihydroxyphenoxy]-3,5-dihydroxyphenoxy]-3,5-dihydroxyphenoxy]-1,3,5-benzenetriol (3) were isolated from S. carpophyllum. Here, we evaluated the anti-allergic activities of these compounds and comprehensively explored their effects on intracellular protein levels. Immunoglobulin E-sensitized rat basophilic leukemia cells pretreated with any of these three compounds exhibited reduced β-hexosaminidase, prostaglandin D2, and tumor necrosis factor-α secretion compared with dinitrophenyl-human serum albumin (DNP-HSA)-stimulated cells. Reduction of β-hexosaminidase release was dose-dependent but the half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of the compounds were similar (36-51 μM). Proteomics analysis revealed that the three compounds up-regulated 25 proteins and down-regulated 33 proteins compared with DNP-HSA stimulation alone, and slightly suppressed proteasome 5 expression linked to the regulation of IκB. These results demonstrate that these phlorotannins are potentially useful for preventing immediate hypersensitivity. S. carpophyllum may be a functional food.
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