Clinical Background: Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, the effects of tobacco use on chronic kidney disease (CKD) are less widespread. Epidemiology: Smoking tobacco is associated with proteinuria and attenuation of glomerular filtration rate in the general population of different ethnicities. Smoking also accelerates the progression of established CKD and aggravates proteinuria along the wide spectrum of causes determining kidney disease. Furthermore, smoking worsens the survival of kidney transplant recipients and shortens graft survival. Most of the effects of tobacco exposure are dose and time dependent and could be ameliorated with smoking cessation. Challenges: In the last decades, tobacco use policies and regulations were implemented around the world obtaining a global 6% reduction in smoking prevalence. However, the reduction was not proportionally equal in all the geographical areas around the world. The region of Americas experimented the most positive result in reducing smoking prevalence. Smoking trends in South East Asian and Eastern Mediterranean regions show minor decrease or increased rates. The World Health Organization projected reaching a global target prevalence of 15% by 2025. Prevention and Treatment: The results showing smoking cessation slows the progression of kidney disease in smokers should drive our effort to help our patients quit smoking. Smoking prevention at the population level, and particularly in those at risk of CKD or with established CKD should be part of health policies and regulations all around the world.
© 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel.