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Toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 9 expressions over the entire clinical and immunopathological spectrum of American cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania(V.) braziliensis and Leishmania (L.) amazonensis.

Toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 9 expressions over the entire clinical and immunopathological spectrum of American cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania(V.) braziliensis and Leishmania (L.) amazonensis.
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Campos MB, Lima LVDR, de Lima ACS, Vasconcelos Dos Santos T, Ramos PKS, Gomes CMC, Silveira FT,


Campos MB, Lima LVDR, de Lima ACS, Vasconcelos Dos Santos T, Ramos PKS, Gomes CMC, Silveira FT, (click to view)

Campos MB, Lima LVDR, de Lima ACS, Vasconcelos Dos Santos T, Ramos PKS, Gomes CMC, Silveira FT,

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PloS one 2018 03 1513(3) e0194383 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0194383
Abstract

Leishmania (V.) braziliensis and Leishmania(L.) amazonensis are the most pathogenic agents of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Brazil, causing a wide spectrum of clinical and immunopathological manifestations, including: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCLDTH+/++), borderline disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis (BDCLDTH±), anergic diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (ADCLDTH-), and mucosal leishmaniasis (MLDTH++++). It has recently been demonstrated, however, that while L. (V.) braziliensis shows a clear potential to advance the infection from central LCL (a moderate T-cell hypersensitivity form) towards ML (the highest T-cell hypersensitivity pole), L. (L.) amazonensis drives the infection in the opposite direction to ADCL (the lowest T-cell hypersensitivity pole). This study evaluated by immunohistochemistry the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2, 4, and 9 and their relationships with CD4 and CD8 T-cells, and TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β cytokines in that disease spectrum. Biopsies of skin and mucosal lesions from 43 patients were examined: 6 cases of ADCL, 5 of BDCL, and 11 of LCL caused byL. (L.) amazonensis; as well as 10 cases of LCL, 4 of BDCL, and 6 of ML caused byL. (V.) braziliensis. CD4+ T-cells demonstrated their highest expression in ML and, in contrast, their lowest in ADCL. CD8+ T-cells also showed their lowest expression in ADCL as compared to the other forms of the disease. TNF-α+showed increased expression from ADCL to ML, while IL-10+and TGF-β+ showed increased expression in the opposite direction, from ML to ADCL. With regards to TLR2, 4, and 9 expressions, strong interactions of TLR2 and 4 with clinical forms associated with L. (V.) braziliensis were observed, while TLR9, in contrast, showed a strong interaction with clinical forms linked to L. (L.) amazonensis. These findings strongly suggest the ability of L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (L.) amazonensis to interact with those TLRs to promote a dichotomous T-cell immune response in ACL.

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