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Toll-like receptors: Significance, ligands, signaling pathways, and functions in mammals.

Toll-like receptors: Significance, ligands, signaling pathways, and functions in mammals.
Author Information (click to view)

Vidya MK, Kumar VG, Sejian V, Bagath M, Krishnan G, Bhatta R,


Vidya MK, Kumar VG, Sejian V, Bagath M, Krishnan G, Bhatta R, (click to view)

Vidya MK, Kumar VG, Sejian V, Bagath M, Krishnan G, Bhatta R,

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International reviews of immunology 2017 10 13() 1-17 doi 10.1080/08830185.2017.1380200
Abstract

This review attempts to cover the implication of the toll-like receptors (TLRs) in controlling immune functions with emphasis on their significance, function, regulation and expression patterns. The tripartite TLRs are type I integral transmembrane receptors that are involved in recognition and conveying of pathogens to the immune system. These paralogs are located on cell surfaces or within endosomes. The TLRs are found to be functionally involved in the recognition of self and non-self-antigens, maturation of DCs and initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune responses as they bridge the innate and adaptive immunity. Interestingly, they also have a significant role in immunotherapy and vaccination. Signals generated by TLRs are transduced through NFκB signaling and MAP kinases pathway to recruit pro-inflammatory cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules, which promote inflammatory responses. The excess production of these cytokines leads to grave systemic disorders like tumor growth and autoimmune disorders. Hence, regulation of the TLR signaling pathway is necessary to keep the host system safe. Many molecules like LPS, SOCS1, IRAK1, NFκB, and TRAF3 are involved in modulating the TLR pathways to induce appropriate response. Though quantification of these TLRs helps in correlating the magnitude of immune response exhibited by the animal, there are several internal, external, genetic and animal factors that affect their expression patterns. So it can be concluded that any identification based on those expression profiles may lead to improper diagnosis during certain conditions.

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