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Tooth loss-related dietary patterns and cognitive impairment in an elderly Japanese population: The Nakajima study.

Tooth loss-related dietary patterns and cognitive impairment in an elderly Japanese population: The Nakajima study.
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Ishimiya M, Nakamura H, Kobayashi Y, Noguchi-Shinohara M, Abe C, Dohmoto C, Ikeda Y, Tokuno K, Ooi K, Yokokawa M, Iwasa K, Komai K, Kawashiri S, Yamada M,


Ishimiya M, Nakamura H, Kobayashi Y, Noguchi-Shinohara M, Abe C, Dohmoto C, Ikeda Y, Tokuno K, Ooi K, Yokokawa M, Iwasa K, Komai K, Kawashiri S, Yamada M, (click to view)

Ishimiya M, Nakamura H, Kobayashi Y, Noguchi-Shinohara M, Abe C, Dohmoto C, Ikeda Y, Tokuno K, Ooi K, Yokokawa M, Iwasa K, Komai K, Kawashiri S, Yamada M,

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PloS one 2018 03 1513(3) e0194504 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0194504
Abstract

Although several studies have demonstrated a potential correlation of dietary patterns with cognitive function, the relationship between tooth loss and dietary patterns and cognitive function have not been identified. In this cross-sectional study, we used a reduced rank regression (RRR) analysis, a technique used previously to observe dietary patterns based on the intakes of nutrients or levels of biomarkers associated with the condition of interest, to identify tooth loss-related dietary patterns and investigate the associations of such patterns with cognitive impairment in 334 community-dwelling Japanese subjects aged ≥ 60 years. According to Pearson correlation coefficients, the intakes of six nutrients (ash content, sodium, zinc, vitamin B1, α- and β-carotene) correlated significantly with the number of remaining teeth. Using RRR analysis, we extracted four dietary patterns in our subject population that explained 86.67% of the total variation in the intakes of these six nutrients. Particularly, dietary pattern 1 (DP1) accounted for 52.2% of the total variation. Food groups with factor loadings of ≥ 0.2 included pickled green leafy vegetables, lettuce/cabbage, green leaves vegetables, cabbage, carrots/squash; by contrast, rice had a factor loading of <-0.2. In a multivariate regression analysis, the adjusted odds ratios regarding the prevalence of cognitive impairment for the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of the DP1 score were 1.00 (reference), 1.224 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.611-2.453) and 0.427 (95% CI: 0.191-0.954), respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that tooth loss-related dietary patterns are associated with a high prevalence of cognitive impairment. These results may motivate changes in dental treatment and the dietary behaviours and thereby lower the risk of cognitive impairment.

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