This study explored results of therapy of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in China, recent progress, and challenges. Included are a survey of therapy outcomes of ALL in Chinese children nationwide, comparison of these data with global ALL therapy outcomes, analyses of obstacles to improving outcomes, and suggestions of how progress can be achieved. Therapy outcomes at many Chinese pediatric cancer centers are approaching those of resource-rich countries. However, nationwide outcomes still need improvement. Obstacles include suboptimal clinical trials participation, children without adequate health care funding, human resource shortages, especially physicians expert in pediatric hematology and oncology, and social-economic disparities. We suggest how these obstacles have been and continue to be remedied including expanded access to protocol-based therapy, improved supportive care, health care reforms, recruitment of trained personnel, and international collaborations. China has made substantial progress treating children with ALL. We envision even better outcomes in the near future.