Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery 2017 12 12() doi 10.1093/icvts/ivx390
Despite the fact that team management has improved the results in recent years, perioperative deaths and complications remain high in paediatric tracheal surgery. We reviewed our institutional experience by comparing our results with those in the literature.
Between 2005 and 2017, 30 children underwent surgery for tracheal disease. Fifteen were boys and fifteen were girls (50% vs 50%). The median age at operation was 7 months (15 days-9.6 years), and the median weight was 5.2 kg (2.8-34 kg). Congenital tracheal stenosis was diagnosed in 25 children (83.3%), and 5 (16.7%) had acquired lesions. The mean internal diameter in congenital tracheal stenosis was 1.5 mm, with complete tracheal rings present in all patients. Associated malformations were bronchopulmonary in 11 cases (36.7%) and cardiovascular in 16 (53.3%).
No in-hospital deaths occurred in our data set. Overall mortality was 4 of 30 cases (13.3%). Twenty-four endoscopic reinterventions were required in 19 children (63%) and consisted of stent positioning in 13 (43.3%), balloon dilatation in 5 (16.7%), granulation removal in 4 (13.3%) and tracheostomy in 2 (6.7%). Of the survivors (26 of 30, 86.7%), 11 children (42.3%) did not require further examination on adequate tracheal diameter for age and absence of symptoms after a median follow-up period of 3.5 years.
The result of paediatric tracheal surgery depends on several factors. The number of cases treated at a particular centre is an important one, but our experience, although limited, can be compared with that at centres with a higher volume of cases. We emphasize the need for applying a multidisciplinary approach to master the surgical command of different reconstructive tracheal procedures, to manage associated defects, particularly cardiovascular defects, and to manage complications under endoscopic guidance. These can be considered the mainstays of building a successful tracheal programme.