Transcatheter patent arterial duct (PAD) closure in premature infants has been shown to be feasible. Since our early transcatheter PAD closure procedures in premature infants at Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades, we have changed our technique several times to advance the guidewire through the right heart to avoid tricuspid valve damage.
To describe the technique we have been using since May 2019, to report our results with a particular focus on tricuspid leaks and to analyse the potential mechanisms of tricuspid lesion development with previous methods.
All premature infants weighing<2kg who underwent transcatheter PAD closure with this new technique were included. Demographic data, procedural data, outcome and procedural complications were reviewed, with particular attention to the occurrence of tricuspid regurgitation.
Between May 2019 and May 2020, 33 patients were included. Median gestational age was 25 weeks. Median birth weight and procedural weight were 690g (range 490-1065g; interquartile range [IQR] 620-785g) and 1160g (range 900-1900g; IQR 1030-1300g), respectively. Median age at procedure was 35 (IQR 30-46) days. PAD anatomy was evaluated on transthoracic echocardiography only. The median duct diameter was 3 (IQR 2.5-3.2) mm at the pulmonary end. Success rate was 100% (defined as successful closure without residual shunt). One patient had a renal vein thrombosis, which fully resolved with low-molecular-weight heparin anticoagulation. No tricuspid regurgitation or stenosis of the left pulmonary artery or the aorta was seen. One patient died of a superior caval vein obstruction with bilateral chylothorax related to a central catheter thrombosis 56 days after the procedure, unrelated to the catheter procedure.
In this prospective study, we describe a new technique to avoid tricuspid valve damage and facilitate delivery of the PAD device.

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