Currently, no estimates can be made on the impact of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation on allergy transfer or cure of the disease. By using component-resolved diagnosis we prospectively investigated fifty donor-recipient pairs undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation. This allowed calculating the rate of transfer or maintenance of allergen-specific responses in the context of stem cell transplantation.
Allergen-specific IgE and IgG to 156 allergens was measured pre-transplantation in 50 donors and recipients and at six, 12 and 24 months in recipients post-transplantation by allergen microarray. Based on a mixed effects model, we determined risks of transfer of allergen-specific IgE or IgG responses 24 months post-transplantation.
After undergoing stem cell transplantation, 94% of allergen-specific IgE responses were lost. Two years post-transplantation, recipients’ allergen-specific IgE was significantly linked to the pre-transplantation donor or recipient status. The estimated risk to transfer and maintain individual IgE responses to allergens by stem cell transplantation was 1.7% and 2.3% respectively. Allergen-specific IgG, which served as a surrogate marker of maintaining protective IgG responses, was highly associated with the donor’s (31.6%) or the recipient’s (28%) pre-transplantation response.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation profoundly reduces allergen-specific IgE responses but also comes with a considerable risk to transfer allergen-specific immune responses. These findings facilitate clinical decision making regarding allergic diseases in the context of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In addition, it provides prospective data to estimate the risk of transmitting allergen-specific responses via hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

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